__ shadow

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Possible Answers: EYE.

Last seen on: LA Times Crossword 14 Nov 18, Wednesday

Random information on the term “__ shadow”:

The black drop effect is an optical phenomenon visible during a transit of Venus and, to a lesser extent, a transit of Mercury.

Just after second contact, and again just before third contact during the transit, a small black “teardrop” appears to connect Venus’ disk to the limb of the Sun, making it impossible to time the exact moment of second or third contact accurately. This led to the failure of the attempts during the 18th century transits of Venus to establish a truly precise value for the astronomical unit.

The black drop effect was long thought to be due to Venus’ thick atmosphere, and indeed it was held to be the first real evidence that Venus had an atmosphere. However, it is now thought by many to be an optical effect caused by the combination of the extreme darkening of the sun’s disk near its apparent edge and the intrinsic imperfection of the viewing apparatus.[1][2]

Observing Mercury simultaneously during its transit in May 1832 with different instruments, Bessel and Argelander noticed a black drop effect (without then using this term) with that instrument of less resolution.[3] With precise measurements, a black drop effect was observed from outside the Earth’s atmosphere during the 1999 and 2003 transits of Mercury, although Mercury has no significant atmosphere.[4]

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__ shadow on Wikipedia

Random information on the term “EYE”:

Apposition eyes are the most common form of eye, and are presumably the ancestral form of compound eye. They are found in all arthropod groups, although they may have evolved more than once within this phylum.[1]Some annelids and bivalves also have apposition eyes. They are also possessed by Limulus, the horseshoe crab, and there are suggestions that other chelicerates developed their simple eyes by reduction from a compound starting point.[1] Some caterpillars appear to have evolved compound eyes from simple eyes in the opposite fashion.[citation needed]

The arthropods ancestrally possessed compound eyes, but the type and origin of this eye varies between groups, and some taxa have secondarily developed simple eyes. The organ’s development through the lineage can be estimated by comparing groups that branched early, such as the velvet worm and horseshoe crab to the advanced eye condition found in insects and other derived arthropods.

Most arthropods have at least one of two types of eye: lateral compound eyes, and smaller median ocelli, which are simple eyes.[3] When both are present, the two eye types are used in concert because each has its own advantage.[4] Some insect larvae, e.g., caterpillars, have a different type of simple eye known as stemmata. These eyes usually provide only a rough image, but (as in sawfly larvae) they can possess resolving powers of 4 degrees of arc, be polarization sensitive and capable of increasing their absolute sensitivity at night by a factor of 1,000 or more [5] . Flying insects can remain level with either type of eye surgically removed, but the two types combine to give better performance.[4] Ocelli can detect lower light levels,[note 1][6] and have a faster response time, while compound eyes are better at detecting edges and are capable of forming images.[4]

EYE on Wikipedia