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Possible Answers: ETD.
Last seen on: LA Times Crossword 26 Nov 2017, Sunday
Random information on the term “ETD”:
Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is a method of fragmenting multiply-charged gaseous macromolecules in a mass spectrometer between the stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Similar to electron-capture dissociation, ETD induces fragmentation of large, multiply-charged cations by transferring electrons to them. ETD is used extensively with polymers and biological molecules such as proteins and peptides for sequence analysis. Transferring an electron causes peptide backbone cleavage into c- and z-ions while leaving labile post translational modifications (PTM) intact. The technique only works well for higher charge state peptide or polymer ions (z>2). However, relative to collision-induced dissociation (CID), ETD is advantageous for the fragmentation of longer peptides or even entire proteins. This makes the technique important for top-down proteomics.The method was developed by Hunt and coworkers at the University of Virginia.
Electron-capture dissociation (ECD) was developed in 1998 to fragment large proteins for mass spectrometric analysis. Because ECD requires a large amount of near-thermal electrons (<0.2eV), originally it was used exclusively with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR), the most expensive form of MS instrumentation. Less costly options such as quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF), quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and linear quadrupole ion trap (QLT) instruments used the more energy-intensive collision-induced dissociation method (CID), resulting in random fragmentation of peptides and proteins. In 2004 Syka et al. announced the creation of ETD, a dissociation method similar to ECD, but using a low-cost, widely available commercial spectrometer. The first ETD experiments were run on a QLT mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source.