Antitoxin

This crossword clue is for the definition: Antitoxin.
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Possible Answers: SERUM.

Last seen on: LA Times Crossword 19 Jun 19, Wednesday

Random information on the term “Antitoxin”:

A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a “toxin” protein and a corresponding “antitoxin”. When these systems are contained on plasmids – transferable genetic elements – they ensure that only the daughter cells that inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. If the plasmid is absent in a daughter cell, the unstable antitoxin is degraded and the stable toxic protein kills the new cell; this is known as ‘post-segregational killing’ (PSK). Toxin-antitoxin systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and organisms often have them in multiple copies.


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Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a type I toxin-antitoxin system, the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes the toxin is inhibited by the binding of a small non-coding RNA antitoxin that binds the toxin mRNA. The toxic protein in a type II system is inhibited post-translationally by the binding of an antitoxin protein. Type III toxin-antitoxin systems consist of a small RNA that binds directly to the toxin protein and inhibits its activity. There are also types IV-VI, which are less common. Toxin-antitoxin genes are often inherited through horizontal gene transfer and are associated with pathogenic bacteria, having been found on plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence.

Antitoxin on Wikipedia