Decision-making tool

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Possible Answers: COIN.

Last seen on: LA Times Crossword 26 Oct 18, Friday

Random information on the term “Decision-making tool”:

Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteria[1]:63 and animals.[1]:69

It can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge; 2) software-hardware; and 3) experts (those with new insights as well as recognized authorities) that continually learns from feedback to produce just-in-time knowledge for better decisions than these three elements acting alone.[2] Or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information.[3] This notion of collective intelligence is referred to as “symbiotic intelligence” by Norman Lee Johnson.[4] The concept is used in sociology, business, computer science and mass communications: it also appears in science fiction. Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, “It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I’ll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities.”[5] According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs (Information communication technologies) to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by simultaneously expanding the extent of human interactions.[6]


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Decision-making tool on Wikipedia

Random information on the term “COIN”:

Civic Openness in Negotiations (COIN) is a set of Collective Bargaining rules involving government agencies and public labor unions intended to ensure transparency and accountability. The process allows for independent fiscal analysis and public scrutiny with a goal of reducing conflicts of interest, accounting for the full cost of agreements, ensuring adequate board review of contracts, and reducing long-term unfunded liabilities and unplanned expense.

COIN is also known as OPEN (Open Public Employee Negotiations).

COIN processes vary but usually have five distinct components:

The first COIN ordinance was written by Mayor pro-tempore Stephen Mensinger and adopted by Costa Mesa, CA[1] in 2012. In subsequent years, it was also adopted by Beverly Hills,[2] Fullerton, Fountain Valley, Rancho Palos Verdes,[3] and Orange County, CA. It has been strongly championed by California State Senator, John Moorlach.[4][5]

In 2015, a Civil Grand Jury in Marin County recommended the adoption of COIN by county agencies including the operator of the Golden Gate Bridge.[6]

COIN on Wikipedia