Dogma

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Possible Answers: ISM.

Last seen on: LA Times Crossword 12 Dec 18, Wednesday

Random information on the term “Dogma”:

The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system. It is often stated as “DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein,”[1] although this is not its original meaning. It was first stated by Francis Crick in 1957[2][3], then published in 1958:[4]

and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970:[5]

A second version of the central dogma is popular but incorrect. This is the simplistic DNA → RNA → protein pathway published by James Watson in the first edition of The Molecular Biology of the Gene (1965). Watson’s version differs from Crick’s because Watson describes the two-step (DNA → RNA and RNA → protein) pathway as the central dogma.[6] While the dogma, as originally stated by Crick, remains valid today, Watson’s version does not.


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The dogma is a framework for understanding the transfer of sequence information between information-carrying biopolymers, in the most common or general case, in living organisms. There are 3 major classes of such biopolymers: DNA and RNA (both nucleic acids), and protein. There are 3×3=9 conceivable direct transfers of information that can occur between these. The dogma classes these into 3 groups of 3: three general transfers (believed to occur normally in most cells), three special transfers (known to occur, but only under specific conditions in case of some viruses or in a laboratory), and three unknown transfers (believed never to occur). The general transfers describe the normal flow of biological information: DNA can be copied to DNA (DNA replication), DNA information can be copied into mRNA (transcription), and proteins can be synthesized using the information in mRNA as a template (translation). The special transfers describe: RNA being copied from RNA (RNA replication), DNA being synthesised using an RNA template (reverse transcription), and proteins being synthesised directly from a DNA template without the use of mRNA. The unknown transfers describe: a protein being copied from a protein, synthesis of RNA using the primary structure of a protein as a template, and DNA synthesis using the primary structure of a protein as a template – these are not thought to naturally occur.[5]

Dogma on Wikipedia

Random information on the term “ISM”:

ISM is the twenty-fourth album by the Norwegian electronic dance music producer Aleksander Vinter, and his fourth using the alias “Savant”. It was released on 9 September 2012.[1]

For the third anniversary of its release (9 September 2015), Vinter released his own remix of the popular track “Starfish” under the alias of his side project, “Blanco”. This track is only available through Bandcamp and Vinter has not announced any plans for a release elsewhere,[1] and despite being considered part of ISM, this track is not included when purchasing SAVANT COMPLETE, Savant’s full discography.[2]

For its fourth anniversary (9 September 2016), 750 limited edition CDs were sold with both signed and unsigned versions. These CDs included updated cover art, and a bonus track made for the anniversary, “ISM Orchestral Suite”; an orchestral suite of many tracks on the album, including “Prelude”, “Zeitgeist”, “8-Bit Lightsaber”, “Outfox”, “Starfish”, and “ISM”. This track is also available on the digital Bandcamp release.[1]

ISM on Wikipedia