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Possible Answers: FWD.
Last seen on: LA Times Crossword 10 Feb 19, Sunday
Random information on the term “FWD”:
A falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a testing device used by civil engineers to evaluate the physical properties of pavement. FWD data is primarily used to estimate pavement structural capacity for 1) overlay design and 2) to determine if a pavement is being overloaded. Use includes (but is not limited to) highways, local roads, airport pavements, harbor areas and railway tracks. The machine is usually contained within a trailer that can be towed to a location by another vehicle. It can also be built on a pickup truck or inside a mini van. There are also comprehensive units where a FWD device is mounted on a heavy truck together with a GPR cart and a TMA protection to have a complete road survey vehicle.
The FWD is designed to impart a load pulse to the pavement surface which simulates the load produced by a rolling vehicle wheel. The load is produced by dropping a large weight, and transmitted to the pavement through a circular load plate – typically 300 mm diameter on roads and 450 mm on airports. A load cell mounted on top of the load plate measures the load imparted to the pavement surface. The load plate can be solid or segmented. The advantage of a segmented load plate is that it adopts to the shape of the pavement, giving an even distribution of the load on uneven surfaces. Typically, the load for road testing is about 40 kN giving about 567 kPa pressure under the load plate (50 kN / 707 kPa according to European standard).