Former

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Possible Answers: ONE-TIME.

Last seen on: LA Times Crossword 27 Jun 19, Thursday

Random information on the term “Former”:

Strip-built, or “strip-plank epoxy”, is a method of boat building. Also known as cold moulding, the strip-built method is commonly used for canoes and kayaks, but also suitable for larger boats. The process involves securing narrow, flexible strips of wood edge-to-edge around temporary formers. The strips are glued edge-to-edge with epoxy. It is effectively a modern form of carvel which need no caulking and which is both stiffer and more watertight. In a small boat, there will be just one layer of strip-planking, but larger vessels may have two or three layers which, (being a pre-shaped marine ply), forms a light, strong and torsionally stiff monococque.


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These are the most popular among boatbuilders. Some professional builders also offer both kits and finished boats. The canoes are constructed by gluing together 1/4″ x 3/4″ strips of wood over a building jig consisting of station molds that define the shape of the hull. The forms are cut as a series of cross-sections of the final design and set up along a “strong back” or other solid base. The strips are shaped with bead and cove router bits. Stripping begins at the sheer line and finishes with “the football”.[clarification needed] The strips are edge-glued to each other, being held in place with nails, staples, or simply clamped to the forms. Once the strips are glued together, and the staples/nails removed, the inside and outside are sanded fair. Fiberglass and epoxy is applied to the canoe inside and out. The fiberglass covering is transparent, waterproof, and allowing the wood strips to be seen. The strips are usually cedar, but can be any type of wood. Contrasting woods are sometimes used as accent strips. The last steps in construction is to install the seats, thwarts, and gunwales. Finally a coat of marine grade polyurethane is applied to protect the wood and epoxy from ultraviolet light.

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