xist

This crossword clue is for the definition: xist.
it’s A 4 letters crossword puzzle definition.
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Possible Answers: ARE.

Last seen on: LA Times Crossword 7 Apr 19, Sunday

Random information on the term “xist”:

X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome is inactivated in some female mammals. The inactive X chromosome is silenced by it being packaged in such a way that it has a transcriptionally inactive structure called heterochromatin. As nearly all female mammals have two X chromosomes, X-inactivation prevents them from having twice as many X chromosome gene products as males, who only possess a single copy of the X chromosome (see dosage compensation). The choice of which X chromosome will be inactivated is random in placental mammals such as humans, but once an X chromosome is inactivated it will remain inactive throughout the lifetime of the cell and its descendants in the organism. Unlike the random X-inactivation in placental mammals, inactivation in marsupials applies exclusively to the paternally derived X chromosome.


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In 1959 Susumu Ohno showed that the two X-chromosomes of mammals were different: one appeared similar to the autosomes; the other was condensed and heterochromatic.[3] This finding suggested, independently to two groups of investigators, that one of the X-chromosomes underwent inactivation. In 1961, Mary Lyon proposed the random inactivation of one female X chromosome to explain the mottled phenotype of female mice heterozygous for coat color genes.[4] The Lyon hypothesis also accounted for the findings that one copy of the X chromosome in female cells was highly condensed, and that mice with only one copy of the X chromosome developed as infertile females. This suggested[5] to Ernest Beutler, studying heterozygous females for Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, that there were two red cell populations of erythrocytes in such heterozygotes: deficient cells and normal cells,[6] depending on whether the inactivated X chromosome (in the nucleus of the red cell’s precursor cell) contains the normal or defective G6PD allele.

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Random information on the term “ARE”:

The Papuan Tip languages are a branch of the Western Oceanic languages consisting of 60 languages. All Papuan Tip languages, except Nimoa, Sudest, and the Kilivila languages (all spoken on islands off the coast of mainland Papua New Guinea), have SOV word order due to influences from nearby Papuan languages (Lynch, Ross, & Crowley 2002:104). Universally, this is considered to be a typologically unusual change.

According to Lynch, Ross, & Crowley (2002), the structure of the family is as follows:[2]

Maisin is difficult to classify, but its Austronesian component likely belongs with Nuclear Papuan Tip. Yele has recently been tentatively classified as closest to Nimoa–Sudest.

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